# SPSS: how to get started?

## Solutions

Developed by Naomi Schalken and Rens van de Schoot

This tutorial expects:

• Basic knowledge of correlation and regression
• An installed version of SPSS on your electronic device

This tutorial provides the reader with a basic introduction to the software package SPSS. The reader will be guided through the investigation of basic data relations using correlations and through the process of conducting a multiple regression analysis in SPSS.

Throughout this tutorial we will use a dataset from Van de Schoot, van der Velden, Boom & Brugman (2010). Using multiple regression, we will predict adolescents’ socially desirable answering patterns (sd) from overt (overt) and covert (covert) antisocial behaviour. For more information on the sample, instruments, methodology and research context we refer the interested reader to the paper (see references). Here we will focus on data-analysis only. The data set and syntax file can be found in the subfolders tilted 'Assignment Files' and ‘Solutions’.

### Exercise 1 - Correlation and Multiple regression in SPSS

In this exercise you will run a regression model with sd as outcome variable and overt and covert as predictors. You can find the data in the file popular_regr_1.xlsx, which you can directly read into SPSS. Note: In many other "How to get started" exercises you will be asked to compare the results from here with results you can obtain e.g. in R or lavaan. Make sure to save or write down the results you found in this exercise.

Exercise 1a. Obtain correlations between the variables of interest by running the following syntax `File -> New -> Syntax`:

CORRELATIONS
/VARIABLES=sd covert overt
/PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG
/MISSING=PAIRWISE.

Simply copy-paste these four lines into the new syntax file, select all text `Ctrl+A` and run the commands `Ctrl+R`.

Question: What do the significance signs and magnitudes of the correlations tell you about the relationships between variables?

Exercise 1b. Run the multiple regression model described above by running the following syntax:

REGRESSION
/DESCRIPTIVES MEAN STDDEV CORR SIG N
/MISSING PAIRWISE
/STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA
/CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10)
/NOORIGIN
/DEPENDENT sd
/METHOD=ENTER covert overt
/SCATTERPLOT=(sd , covert) (sd , overt).

Question: What do you conclude from the regression coefficients? Include the significance and relevance (R2) of effects in your answer.

### References

Van de Schoot, R., van der Velden, F., Boom, J. & Brugman, D. (2010). Can at Risk Young Adolescents be Popular and Antisocial? Sociometric Status Groups, AntiSocial Behavior, Gender and Ethnic Background. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 583-592.

### Other software exercises you might be interested in

MPLUS

How to get started

First Bayesian Inference

How to avoid and when to worry about the misuse of Bayesian Statistics

------------------------------------------

Lavaan

How to get started

------------------------------------------

Blavaan

How to get started

First Bayesian Inference

How to avoid and when to worry about the misuse of Bayesian Statistics

------------------------------------------

RJAGS

How to get started

First Bayesian Inference

How to avoid and when to worry about the misuse of Bayesian Statistics

------------------------------------------

JASP

How to get started