Individuals can be conceptualized as a hierarchical system of individuals nested within groups. Such systems can be observed at different ‘levels’, and variables explaining differences between individuals and/or groups may be defined at each level. This leads to research generally referred to as ‘multilevel research’.
To assess the presence of abstract concepts in people, like prolonged grief disorder, peritraumatic dissociation and students’ motivation, surveys can be used. When concepts are operationalized by means of questions or “items”, they are called “latent variables”.
Beyond Null Hypthesis Testing
Many researchers have no particular interest in a null hypothesis assuming that “nothing is going on”, so why test it at all? Evaluating specific, directional expectations produces more insightful results than sequentially testing traditional null hypotheses against catch-all rivals.
Livingroom of Science
Science is a dynamic process with continuously developing, often implicit rules and attitudes. Proclamations such as “this is how we always do it”, “get used to it”, or “this is what it takes to grow in academia” occur more frequently than they ideally should.