Fostering lifelong learning (LLL) is a topic of high relevance for current educational policy. School lays the cornerstone for the key components of LLL, specifically persistent motivation to learn and self-regulated learning behavior. The present study investigated the impact of classroom instruction variables on concrete determinants for these LLL components. Participants in the present study were 2266 fifth, sixth and seventh graders from 125 classrooms. Multi-level analyses showed that perception of autonomy in the classroom is associated with pupils’ motivational beliefs, and that perception that a classroom promotes self-determined performance and self-reflection of learning is a predictor of pupils' monitoring and assessment of learning. Additionally, the extent of perceived autonomy is an important factor in the reduction of gender differences in motivation. The results indicate the importance of providing pupils with appropriate learning contexts to better prepare them for successful LLL.

Lüftenegger, M., Schober, B., Van de Schoot, R., Wagner, P., Finsterwald, M., & Spiel, C. (2012). Lifelong Learning as a goal - Do autonomy and self-regulation in school result in well prepared pupils? Learning and Instruction, 22(1), 27–36.