Applauded for its clarity, this accessible introduction helps readers apply multilevel techniques to their research. The book also includes advanced extensions, making it useful as both an introduction for students and as a reference for researchers. Basic models and examples are discussed in nontechnical terms with an emphasis on understanding the methodological and statistical issues involved in using these models. The estimation and interpretation of multilevel models is demonstrated using realistic examples from various disciplines including psychology, education, public health, and sociology. Readers are introduced to a general framework on multilevel modeling which covers both observed and latent variables in the same model, while most other books focus on observed variables. In addition, Bayesian estimation is introduced and applied using accessible software.

Hox, J., Moerbeek, M., & Van de Schoot, R. (2017). Multilevel Analysis: Techniques and Applications, Third Edition. Taylor & Francis Ltd.

See the publisher website or order at your local bookstore.

Chapter 2 is freely available for teaching purposes.

Joop Hox
Emeritus Professor social science methodology
Joop occupies himself with data quality in surveys and analysis models for complex data. Recently, his studies are on non-response problems in surveys and interviewer effects. The complex data types are often multilevel or clustered data.
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