A checklist for testing measurement invariance
The analysis of measurement invariance of latent constructs is important in research across groups, or across time. By establishing whether factor loadings, intercepts and residual variances are equivalent in a factor model that measures a latent concept, we can assure that comparisons that are made on the latent variable are valid across groups or time. Establishing measurement invariance involves running a set of increasingly constrained structural equation models, and testing whether differences between these models are significant. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to analysing measurement invariance.