Achievement goal orientations are important for students’ ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students’ mastery goal orientation. The TARGET framework is one example of these efforts and provides six instructional dimensions (task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation, time), which should form a classroom structure that fosters a mastery goal orientation. The aim of this study was to examine the entire multi-dimensional TARGET framework and its impact on mastery goal orientation in a longitudinal study with 1680 secondary school students. CFAs confirmed the existence of one latent factor TARGET comprising the six proposed dimensions. This study also provides the first empirical evidence, based on longitudinal data, that TARGET has a positive impact on student mastery goal orientations.

Lüftenegger, M., Van de Schoot, R., Schober, B., Finsterwald, M., & Spiel, C. (2013). Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations: does TARGET work? Educational Psychology, 34(4), 451-469.